COALspot.com keeps you connected across the coal world
  • JULY 2021 HBA FOR EXPORTS INCREASED BY $15.02 MOM, $39.51 YTM AND $63.19 YOY
  • JULY 2021 INDONESIAN COAL PRICE REFERENCE FOR EXPORTS FIXED AT US$ 115.35 A TON

Submit Your Articles
We welcome article submissions from experts in the areas of coal, mining, shipping, etc.

To Submit your article please click here.

International Energy Events


WTI Crude Oil

BRENT Crude Oil

Search News
Latest CoalNews Headlines
Tuesday, 29 December 20
CORROSION-RESISTANT STEELS FOR CARGO OIL TANKS - DNV GL
DNV GLKNOWLEDGE TO ELEVATE

Crude oil is a complex mixture of substances at varying ratios and in most cases contains at least some salt water. Even after desalination some of this brine remains dissolved in the crude and gradually sinks to the bottom of the cargo oil tank during transport. The corrosive nature of salt, along with microorganisms and other aggressive substances contained in the cargo oil, causes rust, most notably in the form of pitting, which are cavities in the steel that deepen over time.
 
Double-hull tankers are more prone to pitting
 
“Pitting corrosion is typically found in the bottom area of cargo oil tanks,” explains Dr Eva Junghans, Senior Principal Engineer and Lead of Practice Materials & Welding and Additive Manufacturing at DNV GL. “Above the cargo surface, especially on the underside of the upper deck, corrosion tends to be more evenly spread,” the expert continues. “It is primarily caused by aggressive chemicals contained in the inert gas, which is flue gas from auxiliary engines pumped into the cargo tanks to prevent an explosion of fumes rising up from the cargo.”
 
While in the single-hull tankers of the past the cooling effect of the seawater slowed down bacterial growth by keeping the cargo relatively cool, the double hull of compliant modern tankers insulates the cargo from the low temperature of the seawater. As a result, the cargo stays relatively warm, providing ideal conditions for corrosion-causing microorganisms to thrive. Pitting therefore progresses rapidly on an unprotected tank bottom, weakening the metal and risking cargo loss, structural damage and environmental pollution.
 
“The traditional way to prevent pitting and general corrosion has been to apply specially formulated coatings to the affected surfaces,” says Dr Junghans. “This is an expensive, time-consuming process that needs to be supervised to ensure proper execution. What is more, protective coatings typically have to be renewed from time to time.”
 
Corrosion-resistant steel – a proven alternative approach
 
These well-known facts prompted three Japanese steel manufacturers – JFE Steel Corporation, Nippon Steel Corporation and Kobe Steel, Ltd. – to submit a proposal to IMO to accept the use of corrosion-resistant steels as an alternative method of preventing corrosion in crude oil tanks. Following thorough discussion, IMO issued its new ‘Performance Standard for Alternative Means of Corrosion Protection for Cargo Oil Tanks of Crude Oil Tankers’ as an extension of the Performance Standards for Protective Coatings (PSPC) in 2010.
 
Research performed over a ten-year period by JFE Steel Corporation in a crude oil tanker delivered in 2008 confirmed that the corrosion-resistant steel dramatically reduced both pitting corrosion and general surface corrosion compared to uncoated conventional steel. Various other vessels featuring cargo tanks fitted with these advanced steels have been in operation since the new IMO PSPC standard came into effect and have demonstrated vastly improved corrosion resistance. The technology can thus be considered as validated.
 
New notation COAT-PSPC(CA) confirms compliance
 
DNV GL has since revised its relevant ship construction rules to incorporate corrosion-resistant steels for cargo tanks, and recently added the new classifier “CA” (for “corrosion protection by alternate means”) to its existing corrosion protection class notation. Announced in July 2020, the new notation COAT-PSPC(CA) confirms a ship’s compliance with the corrosion protection requirements for cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers, by application of approved corrosion-resistant steel grades in one of the following areas of a cargo tank:
 
a) Lower surface of the strength deck and surrounding structures (RCU)
 
b) Upper surface of the inner bottom plating and surrounding structures (RCB)
 
c) Both the strength deck and the inner bottom plating (RCW)
 
Besides using the approved steel grades, the notation also implies the use of appropriate, approved welding consumables to join the plates. Compliance with both requirements must be substantiated by submitting specific documentation. The class notation will enter into force six months after publication of the rules, i.e. in January 2021.
 
Eliminating the cost of coating
 
Opting for corrosion-resistant steels in the corrosion-prone areas of crude oil tanks offers various benefits to owners and charterers as well as shipyards. One example is to eliminate the cost of coating and shortening the time it takes to complete a newbuild in the yard. Furthermore, no coatings need to be reapplied to the relevant tank wall areas over the lifetime of the vessel since the IMO performance standard assumes a useful life of 25 years of the cargo oil tank (COT) steel until its thickness is reduced beyond acceptable levels. Owners who choose this class notation can demonstrate to cargo owners that their crude oil tankers have a lower risk of tank bottom or wall failure, cargo loss and environmental pollution, thereby enhancing confidence in their ships.
 
Approved steel grades enhance customer confidence
 
DNV GL has approved all corrosion-resistant steel grades developed by the three Japanese steelmakers according to the IMO standard and the corresponding DNV GL standard, DNVGL-CP-0429. The Tokyo head office of JFE Steel Corporation commented: “Receiving approval from DNV GL, a world-leading classification society, for our corrosion-resistant steels is a milestone for us. Corrosion-resistant steels have not been so popular among oil majors and Euro-American operators of crude oil tankers, although these steels have already been well adopted for use in cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers operated by Japanese operators for Japanese oil companies. However, DNV GL’s approval for our corrosion-resistant steels raises awareness among oil majors and Euro-American operators as an alternative means to meet the IMO standard.” Several Chinese steelmakers have since requested approval from DNV GL for their COT steels.
Source: DNV GL


If you believe an article violates your rights or the rights of others, please contact us.

Recent News

Wednesday, 14 July 21
MARKET INSIGHT - INTERMODAL
In its latest Global Economic Prospects report, the world bank recorded the strongest post-recession global growth in 80 years, but emerging and de ...


Tuesday, 13 July 21
JAPAN STILL SEEKING TO EXPLOIT COAL POWER LOOPHOLES - IEEFA
JBIC wants to continue burdening developing nations with its expensive coal-fired power technology Japan is continuing to push its expensive c ...


Sunday, 11 July 21
COAL SHOWS ITS STAYING POWER AS ECONOMIES BOUNCE BACK - THE WALL STREET JOURNAL
Coal use is surging in some of the world’s largest economies as electricity demand rebounds from the pandemic, illustrating the challenges to ...


Sunday, 11 July 21
ROBUST CHINA COAL DEMAND AMID AUSTRALIA IMPORT BAN FUELS PRICE RALLY - REUTERS
Seaborne coal has become a quiet winner among energy commodities, lacking the attention of higher-profile crude oil and liquefied natural gas (LNG) ...


Saturday, 10 July 21
OVERESTIMATED LCOES OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS CREATE A FINANCIAL BUBBLE - IEEFA
Massive stranded asset risk detrimentally affects the financial and power distribution India’s future coal-fired power project pipeline ...


   1 2 3 4 5   
Showing 6 to 10 news of total 6351
News by Category
Popular News
 
Total Members : 27,491
Member
Panelist
User ID
Password
Remember Me
By logging on you accept our TERMS OF USE.
Free
Register
Forgot Password
 
Our Members Are From ...

  • Medco Energi Mining Internasional
  • EIA - United States
  • Enel Italy
  • Independent Power Producers Association of India
  • San Jose City I Power Corp, Philippines
  • Platts
  • LBH Netherlands Bv - Netherlands
  • GHCL Limited - India
  • CIMB Investment Bank - Malaysia
  • Humpuss - Indonesia
  • Barclays Capital - USA
  • Sindya Power Generating Company Private Ltd
  • Maruti Cements - India
  • Shenhua Group - China
  • Sinarmas Energy and Mining - Indonesia
  • Sarangani Energy Corporation, Philippines
  • Mercator Lines Limited - India
  • The India Cements Ltd
  • Chettinad Cement Corporation Ltd - India
  • GVK Power & Infra Limited - India
  • Altura Mining Limited, Indonesia
  • Ambuja Cements Ltd - India
  • Intertek Mineral Services - Indonesia
  • Bhushan Steel Limited - India
  • Gresik Semen - Indonesia
  • Alfred C Toepfer International GmbH - Germany
  • Xstrata Coal
  • SMG Consultants - Indonesia
  • Salva Resources Pvt Ltd - India
  • Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission - India
  • CNBM International Corporation - China
  • South Luzon Thermal Energy Corporation
  • Indonesian Coal Mining Association
  • TANGEDCO India
  • Formosa Plastics Group - Taiwan
  • Britmindo - Indonesia
  • Binh Thuan Hamico - Vietnam
  • Manunggal Multi Energi - Indonesia
  • Coal India Limited
  • Russian Coal LLC
  • ASAPP Information Group - India
  • Price Waterhouse Coopers - Russia
  • Interocean Group of Companies - India
  • Maheswari Brothers Coal Limited - India
  • KPMG - USA
  • ICICI Bank Limited - India
  • Kumho Petrochemical, South Korea
  • PetroVietnam
  • Videocon Industries ltd - India
  • Goldman Sachs - Singapore
  • Leighton Contractors Pty Ltd - Australia
  • PNOC Exploration Corporation - Philippines
  • Parry Sugars Refinery, India
  • Eastern Energy - Thailand
  • Cardiff University - UK
  • Petrosea - Indonesia
  • Mercuria Energy - Indonesia
  • Thermax Limited - India
  • Tata Power - India
  • TRAFIGURA, South Korea
  • Meenaskhi Energy Private Limited - India
  • SRK Consulting
  • GMR Energy Limited - India
  • HSBC - Hong Kong
  • Asmin Koalindo Tuhup - Indonesia
  • MS Steel International - UAE
  • Power Finance Corporation Ltd., India
  • Indika Energy - Indonesia
  • CESC Limited - India
  • Indian Energy Exchange, India
  • UOB Asia (HK) Ltd
  • Agrawal Coal Company - India
  • IOL Indonesia
  • Minerals Council of Australia
  • Directorate General of MIneral and Coal - Indonesia
  • Samtan Co., Ltd - South Korea
  • Truba Alam Manunggal Engineering.Tbk - Indonesia
  • Fearnleys - India
  • Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand
  • Glencore India Pvt. Ltd
  • Shree Cement - India
  • Clarksons - UK
  • DBS Bank - Singapore
  • PLN - Indonesia
  • Renaissance Capital - South Africa
  • Global Coal Blending Company Limited - Australia
  • Cement Manufacturers Association - India
  • Barasentosa Lestari - Indonesia
  • Xindia Steels Limited - India
  • Jaiprakash Power Ventures ltd
  • Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ Ltd
  • APGENCO India
  • Holcim Trading Pte Ltd - Singapore
  • Bukit Asam (Persero) Tbk - Indonesia
  • Jorong Barutama Greston.PT - Indonesia
  • Kideco Jaya Agung - Indonesia
  • Kalimantan Lumbung Energi - Indonesia
  • Iligan Light & Power Inc, Philippines
  • Coal Orbis AG
  • Pinang Coal Indonesia
  • Madhucon Powers Ltd - India
  • Australian Commodity Traders Exchange
  • Arch Coal - USA
  • GB Group - China
  • Straits Asia Resources Limited - Singapore
  • Vijayanagar Sugar Pvt Ltd - India
  • Mintek Dendrill Indonesia
  • Romanian Commodities Exchange
  • Coastal Gujarat Power Limited - India
  • Core Mineral Indonesia
  • Antam Resourcindo - Indonesia
  • KEPCO - South Korea
  • Georgia Ports Authority, United States
  • OPG Power Generation Pvt Ltd - India
  • Bukit Baiduri Energy - Indonesia
  • AsiaOL BioFuels Corp., Philippines
  • Cemex - Philippines
  • Central Electricity Authority - India
  • World Coal - UK
  • Ministry of Transport, Egypt
  • India Bulls Power Limited - India
  • Vitol - Bahrain
  • Surastha Cement
  • Rudhra Energy - India
  • Savvy Resources Ltd - HongKong
  • Aditya Birla Group - India
  • CCIC - Indonesia
  • MEC Coal - Indonesia
  • JPMorgan - India
  • PLN Batubara - Indonesia
  • Merrill Lynch Bank
  • Coaltrans Conferences
  • Singapore Mercantile Exchange
  • Bahari Cakrawala Sebuku - Indonesia
  • International Coal Ventures Pvt Ltd - India
  • Maersk Broker
  • PetroVietnam Power Coal Import and Supply Company
  • U S Energy Resources
  • Tata Chemicals Ltd - India
  • Oldendorff Carriers - Singapore
  • Attock Cement Pakistan Limited
  • Therma Luzon, Inc, Philippines
  • Kepco SPC Power Corporation, Philippines
  • Ministry of Finance - Indonesia
  • Latin American Coal - Colombia
  • Inspectorate - India
  • Bhatia International Limited - India
  • Krishnapatnam Port Company Ltd. - India
  • Thailand Anthracite
  • Eastern Coal Council - USA
  • Petron Corporation, Philippines
  • Wood Mackenzie - Singapore
  • Miang Besar Coal Terminal - Indonesia
  • Gujarat Sidhee Cement - India
  • Peabody Energy - USA
  • Makarim & Taira - Indonesia
  • Kohat Cement Company Ltd. - Pakistan
  • SUEK AG - Indonesia
  • Kobexindo Tractors - Indoneisa
  • SGS (Thailand) Limited
  • Ministry of Mines - Canada
  • Directorate Of Revenue Intelligence - India
  • Dalmia Cement Bharat India
  • ING Bank NV - Singapore
  • Coalindo Energy - Indonesia
  • Bhoruka Overseas - Indonesia
  • IEA Clean Coal Centre - UK
  • Mitra SK Pvt Ltd - India
  • Bangkok Bank PCL
  • Sucofindo - Indonesia
  • Thomson Reuters GRC
  • Ince & co LLP
  • Malco - India
  • Platou - Singapore
  • VISA Power Limited - India
  • Moodys - Singapore
  • Orica Australia Pty. Ltd.
  • SMC Global Power, Philippines
  • Uttam Galva Steels Limited - India
  • Electricity Authority, New Zealand
  • Edison Trading Spa - Italy
  • Asia Cement - Taiwan
  • Mitsubishi Corporation
  • Samsung - South Korea
  • Arutmin Indonesia
  • Global Green Power PLC Corporation, Philippines
  • Sakthi Sugars Limited - India
  • Orica Mining Services - Indonesia
  • Reliance Power - India
  • Sree Jayajothi Cements Limited - India
  • Infraline Energy - India
  • The Treasury - Australian Government
  • Filglen & Citicon Mining (HK) Ltd - Hong Kong
  • ACC Limited - India
  • Indian School of Mines
  • The University of Queensland
  • globalCOAL - UK
  • Thriveni
  • London Commodity Brokers - England
  • TNB Fuel Sdn Bhd - Malaysia
  • GN Power Mariveles Coal Plant, Philippines
  • World Bank
  • Adani Power Ltd - India
  • Merrill Lynch Commodities Europe
  • Berau Coal - Indonesia
  • Borneo Indobara - Indonesia
  • Marubeni Corporation - India
  • Essar Steel Hazira Ltd - India
  • Mitsui
  • Global Business Power Corporation, Philippines
  • Ceylon Electricity Board - Sri Lanka
  • Deutsche Bank - India
  • Pendopo Energi Batubara - Indonesia
  • CoalTek, United States
  • Permata Bank - Indonesia
  • Indonesia Power. PT
  • Idemitsu - Japan
  • Indogreen Group - Indonesia
  • ETA - Dubai
  • Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd, - India
  • Runge Indonesia
  • SASOL - South Africa
  • Central Java Power - Indonesia
  • Lafarge - France
  • Cigading International Bulk Terminal - Indonesia
  • Australian Coal Association
  • IBC Asia (S) Pte Ltd
  • Africa Commodities Group - South Africa
  • UBS Singapore
  • ANZ Bank - Australia
  • Gupta Coal India Ltd
  • Heidelberg Cement - Germany
  • Coal and Oil Company - UAE
  • Bayan Resources Tbk. - Indonesia
  • Energy Development Corp, Philippines
  • Karbindo Abesyapradhi - Indoneisa
  • Offshore Bulk Terminal Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • Timah Investasi Mineral - Indoneisa
  • Credit Suisse - India
  • Rio Tinto Coal - Australia
  • JPower - Japan
  • Tanito Harum - Indonesia
  • Semirara Mining and Power Corporation, Philippines
  • Riau Bara Harum - Indonesia
  • Baramulti Group, Indonesia
  • Ind-Barath Power Infra Limited - India
  • Tamil Nadu electricity Board
  • Thai Mozambique Logistica
  • KPCL - India
  • TeaM Sual Corporation - Philippines
  • Pipit Mutiara Jaya. PT, Indonesia
  • Sical Logistics Limited - India
  • Japan Coal Energy Center
  • Commonwealth Bank - Australia
  • Indo Tambangraya Megah - Indonesia
  • IHS Mccloskey Coal Group - USA
  • TNPL - India
  • Inco-Indonesia
  • Vedanta Resources Plc - India
  • Cebu Energy, Philippines
  • Coeclerici Indonesia
  • Kaltim Prima Coal - Indonesia
  • Asia Pacific Energy Resources Ventures Inc, Philippines
  • Dr Ramakrishna Prasad Power Pvt Ltd - India
  • Malabar Cements Ltd - India
  • Qatrana Cement - Jordan
  • GAC Shipping (India) Pvt Ltd
  • WorleyParsons
  • TGV SRAAC LIMITED, India
  • Indian Oil Corporation Limited
  • PTC India Limited - India
  • Bulk Trading Sa - Switzerland
  • Kobe Steel Ltd - Japan
  • Argus Media - Singapore
  • Energy Link Ltd, New Zealand
  • Gujarat Mineral Development Corp Ltd - India
  • KOWEPO - South Korea
  • Toyota Tsusho Corporation, Japan
  • Petrochimia International Co. Ltd.- Taiwan
  • Posco Energy - South Korea
  • Mechel - Russia
  • RBS Sempra - UK
  • Dong Bac Coal Mineral Investment Coporation - Vietnam
  • Freeport Indonesia
  • Kapuas Tunggal Persada - Indonesia
  • bp singapore
  • McKinsey & Co - India
  • Karaikal Port Pvt Ltd - India
  • Bharathi Cement Corporation - India
  • Cosco
  • Sojitz Corporation - Japan
  • OCBC - Singapore
  • Chamber of Mines of South Africa
  • Grasim Industreis Ltd - India
  • Simpson Spence & Young - Indonesia
  • Planning Commission, India
  • Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited - India
  • EMO - The Netherlands
  • Carbofer General Trading SA - India
  • European Bulk Services B.V. - Netherlands
  • Bukit Makmur.PT - Indonesia
  • Banpu Public Company Limited - Thailand
  • Deloitte Consulting - India
  • IMC Shipping - Singapore
  • J M Baxi & Co - India
  • Bank of America
  • Total Coal South Africa
  • Siam City Cement PLC, Thailand
  • Jindal Steel & Power Ltd - India
  • Geoservices-GeoAssay Lab
  • NALCO India
  • Siam City Cement - Thailand
  • Kartika Selabumi Mining - Indonesia
  • New Zealand Coal & Carbon
  • McConnell Dowell - Australia
  • Bank of China, Malaysia
  • Standard Chartered Bank - UAE
  • Indorama - Singapore
  • PowerSource Philippines DevCo
  • Port Waratah Coal Services - Australia
  • Asian Development Bank
  • Semirara Mining Corp, Philippines
  • NTPC Limited - India
  • Noble Europe Ltd - UK
  • GNFC Limited - India
  • Parliament of New Zealand
  • Maybank - Singapore
  • Anglo American - United Kingdom
  • Economic Council, Georgia
  • Billiton Holdings Pty Ltd - Australia
  • Jatenergy - Australia
  • Thiess Contractors Indonesia
  • Vizag Seaport Private Limited - India
  • Bangladesh Power Developement Board
  • Aboitiz Power Corporation - Philippines
  • White Energy Company Limited
  • BNP Paribas - Singapore
  • Panama Canal Authority
  • SN Aboitiz Power Inc, Philippines
  • Globalindo Alam Lestari - Indonesia
  • Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission - India
  • Trasteel International SA, Italy
  • Cargill India Pvt Ltd
  • Lanco Infratech Ltd - India
  • Mjunction Services Limited - India
  • Wilmar Investment Holdings
  • Vale Mozambique
  • Larsen & Toubro Limited - India
  • Star Paper Mills Limited - India
  • BRS Brokers - Singapore
  • Meralco Power Generation, Philippines
  • The State Trading Corporation of India Ltd
  • Ernst & Young Pvt. Ltd.
  • Adaro Indonesia
  • Metalloyd Limited - United Kingdom