keeps you connected across the coal world

Submit Your Articles
We welcome article submissions from experts in the areas of coal, mining, shipping, etc.

To Submit your article please click here.

International Energy Events

WTI Crude Oil

BRENT Crude Oil

Search News
Latest CoalNews Headlines
Wednesday, 28 October 20

One of numerous possible ways to comply with the IMO’s strategy on the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ships is to use biofuels or biofuel blends. Biofuels have very low sulphur levels and low CO2 emissions, as such they are a technically viable solution in meeting some of the current and future emission requirements. However, their NOx emissions might be higher than with fossil diesel oils and another immediate challenge is that the shipping sector still have limited knowledge on handling and applying biofuels as part of their fuel supply.
DNV GL is an independent expert in risk management and quality assurance and a frequent collaborator with Gard in in loss prevention and sustainability projects. We are pleased to re-publish their recent information and advice with respect to the increasing use of biodiesel in bunkers.
Types of biofuel
• FAME (fatty acid methyl aster): FAME is produced from vegetable oils, animal fats or waste cooking oils by transesterification, where various oils (triglycerides) are converted to methyl esters. This is the most widely available type of biodiesel in the industry and is often blended with regular marine diesel. The marine fuel specification standard ISO 8217:2017 includes additional specifications (DF grades) for distillate marine fuels containing up to 7.0 volume % FAME. The FAME used for blending shall meet specification requirements of EN 14214 or ASTM D6751. FAME-diesel blends with up to 30% BTL content are also used in automotive applications and referred to as B20 or B30. (International standards: EN 14214, ASTM D6751, EN 590)
• BTL (biomass to liquid fuels): BTL is a synthetic fuel produced from biomass by means of thermo-chemical conversion. The end product can be fuels that are chemically different from conventional fuels such as gasoline or diesel but can also be used in diesel engines. (International standards: EN 16709, EN 15940)
• HVO (hydrotreated vegetable oil): HVO or HDRD (hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel) is the product of fats or vegetable oils – alone or blended with petroleum – refined by a hydrotreating process known as fatty acidsto-hydrocarbon hydrotreatment. Diesel produced using this process is often called renewable diesel to differentiate it from FAME biodiesel. The overall production process is typically more costly than for FAME biodiesel, however HVO/HDRD is a drop-in fuel which can be directly introduced in distribution and refueling facilities as well as existing diesel engines without any further modification. (International standards: ASTM D 975)
Regulatory items on biofuels to be observed
MARPOL Annex VI Regulation 18, “Fuel Oil Availability and Qualities”, applies to using both fuels derived from petroleum refining and derived by methods other than petroleum refining, e.g. biodiesel. Note that in this context, synthetic fuels according to EN 15940 are not considered to fall under “fuels oils derived by methods other than petroleum refining.” These synthetic fuels include the subgroups such as Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO), Biomass to Liquid (BTL), Gas to Liquid (GTL and Coal to Liquid (CTL) which are different resources converted to fuels though chemical processes.
In the case of biodiesel, the fuel shall, among others, not exceed the applicable sulphur content. Moreover, such fuels shall not cause an engine to exceed the applicable NOx emission limits. Meeting the sulphur limits is normally not a challenge for biofuels, however the NOx emissions might be higher than with fossil diesel oils, due to possibly high oxygen content.
To meet the requirements of MARPOL Annex VI, evidence must be made to confirm that the diesel engine complies with the applicable NOx emission limits (which depend on the keel laying date of the vessel and the operational area) also when biofuels are used for combustion purposes. To demonstrate this, depending on the biofuel used, the evidence may be a challenge and it may require on-board emission testing where the results should be presented in g/kWh (not only concentrations in ppm). Due to the complexity of the required tests, DNV GL recommends performing the emission tests on stationary test beds and offers to assist ship operators with obtaining the required exemption from the flag administration.
DNV GL also advices that, as an alternative to the measurements, and in case it can be proven by either analysis or reference to a known international standard that the emission properties of the biofuel are equivalent to that of conventional diesel, this evidence might act as proof that the biofuel does not cause the engine to exceed the applicable NOx emission limits.
If additional alterations, which are beyond the limits in the approved NOx Technical File, the engine(s) are required to optimize the combustion when using the biofuel, and the NOx Technical File needs to be formally amended.
Technical challenges and solutions
Below is a summary of items to be observed for the use of biofuels and a few words on how to prevent damages on board:
Microbial growth: Bacteria and mould may grow if condensed water accumulates in biodiesel fuel. Microbial growth leads to excessive formation of sludge, clogged filters and piping. Frequent draining of tanks and the application of biocide in the fuel may reduce or mitigate microbial growth.
Oxygen degradation: Biodiesel can degrade over time, forming contaminants of polymers, and other insolubles. Deposits in piping and engines could form, compromising operational performance. In advanced stages, this could lead to increased fuel acidity, which could result in corrosion in the fuel system and accumulation of deposits in pumps and injectors. It is therefore recommended not to bunker the fuel for long-term storage before use, but to treat the fuel as fresh goods and to use it within a relatively short period of time. Adding antioxidants to the fuel at an early stage may improve the ability of a somewhat longer time of storage without degradation.
Low temperature: Biodiesels in higher concentration usually have a higher cloud point than diesel (depending on feedstock), leading to poor flow properties and the clogging of filters at lower temperatures. It is therefore important to know the product’s cold flow properties and to keep the storage and transfer temperatures above the cloud point.
Corrosion: This is most critical for biodiesel in higher concentration (B80-B100). Some types of hoses and gaskets could degrade, leading to loss of integrity and interaction with some metallic material such as copper, brass, lead, tin, zinc, etc. It could also result in an increased formation of deposits. Hence, it is important to verify that these components in the fuel system are endurable and can be used together with biofuel.
Possible degeneration of rubber sealings, gaskets and hoses: It is important to verify that these components in the fuel system are endurable and can be used together with biofuel.
Conversion: Biodiesel has shown to have a solvent property, so when switching from diesel to biofuel it is expected that deposits in the fuel system will be flushed, clogging fuel filters. It is recommended to flush the system and/or to monitor filters during this period.
We thank DNV GL for permitting us to share this information with our readers. The original version of this article, with more information about DNV GL’s service offering, can be found on the DNV GL website.
Source: Gard

If you believe an article violates your rights or the rights of others, please contact us.

Recent News

Thursday, 25 February 21
As the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic began to bite, many observers confidently predicted that the end was nigh for global economic activit ...

Thursday, 25 February 21
Total loadings in the 12 months of 2020 were down -12.7% year-on-year to 1,130 million tonnes, according to vessels tracking data from Refinitiv, s ...

Wednesday, 24 February 21
With yields of up to 563%, the shares of Greek shipping companies listed on Wall Street are recorded. The Coronavirus pandemic has not significantl ...

Sunday, 21 February 21
The biggest buyers of Australian thermal coal have committed to net-zero emissions ANZ, Australia’s third largest bank, has decided to s ...

Sunday, 21 February 21
Shifting away from coal is not only desirable, but absolutely necessary in these times.   In spite of being detrimental to environment ...

   1 2 3 4 5   
Showing 1 to 5 news of total 6236
News by Category
Popular News
Total Members : 27,308
User ID
Remember Me
By logging on you accept our TERMS OF USE.
Forgot Password
Our Members Are From ...

  • CNBM International Corporation - China
  • Australian Commodity Traders Exchange
  • Glencore India Pvt. Ltd
  • Shree Cement - India
  • Parry Sugars Refinery, India
  • PLN Batubara - Indonesia
  • Pinang Coal Indonesia
  • OCBC - Singapore
  • Videocon Industries ltd - India
  • Global Coal Blending Company Limited - Australia
  • Dalmia Cement Bharat India
  • Baramulti Group, Indonesia
  • Sarangani Energy Corporation, Philippines
  • Thai Mozambique Logistica
  • Borneo Indobara - Indonesia
  • Attock Cement Pakistan Limited
  • Samtan Co., Ltd - South Korea
  • JPMorgan - India
  • Bayan Resources Tbk. - Indonesia
  • Alfred C Toepfer International GmbH - Germany
  • New Zealand Coal & Carbon
  • CoalTek, United States
  • Price Waterhouse Coopers - Russia
  • Energy Link Ltd, New Zealand
  • Berau Coal - Indonesia
  • Petrosea - Indonesia
  • ACC Limited - India
  • Posco Energy - South Korea
  • Kartika Selabumi Mining - Indonesia
  • ASAPP Information Group - India
  • Reliance Power - India
  • Platou - Singapore
  • Vijayanagar Sugar Pvt Ltd - India
  • Core Mineral Indonesia
  • The State Trading Corporation of India Ltd
  • Petron Corporation, Philippines
  • Thailand Anthracite
  • Therma Luzon, Inc, Philippines
  • Tata Power - India
  • Kideco Jaya Agung - Indonesia
  • Leighton Contractors Pty Ltd - Australia
  • Sree Jayajothi Cements Limited - India
  • Parliament of New Zealand
  • Petrochimia International Co. Ltd.- Taiwan
  • London Commodity Brokers - England
  • WorleyParsons
  • globalCOAL - UK
  • Kalimantan Lumbung Energi - Indonesia
  • Meralco Power Generation, Philippines
  • Clarksons - UK
  • Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ Ltd
  • Energy Development Corp, Philippines
  • Permata Bank - Indonesia
  • Australian Coal Association
  • Star Paper Mills Limited - India
  • The University of Queensland
  • Carbofer General Trading SA - India
  • Karbindo Abesyapradhi - Indoneisa
  • Offshore Bulk Terminal Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • Straits Asia Resources Limited - Singapore
  • Adani Power Ltd - India
  • Krishnapatnam Port Company Ltd. - India
  • Filglen & Citicon Mining (HK) Ltd - Hong Kong
  • Bharathi Cement Corporation - India
  • Manunggal Multi Energi - Indonesia
  • Bank of America
  • McConnell Dowell - Australia
  • World Bank
  • Standard Chartered Bank - UAE
  • Cemex - Philippines
  • Wilmar Investment Holdings
  • NALCO India
  • Gresik Semen - Indonesia
  • Simpson Spence & Young - Indonesia
  • Runge Indonesia
  • Maersk Broker
  • Sakthi Sugars Limited - India
  • Mercator Lines Limited - India
  • IHS Mccloskey Coal Group - USA
  • CIMB Investment Bank - Malaysia
  • Kapuas Tunggal Persada - Indonesia
  • Central Java Power - Indonesia
  • Sindya Power Generating Company Private Ltd
  • Rudhra Energy - India
  • Uttam Galva Steels Limited - India
  • SMC Global Power, Philippines
  • Samsung - South Korea
  • Indorama - Singapore
  • Global Green Power PLC Corporation, Philippines
  • Latin American Coal - Colombia
  • Sinarmas Energy and Mining - Indonesia
  • Orica Mining Services - Indonesia
  • GAC Shipping (India) Pvt Ltd
  • Semirara Mining and Power Corporation, Philippines
  • Bukit Asam (Persero) Tbk - Indonesia
  • Makarim & Taira - Indonesia
  • Coal India Limited
  • Ince & co LLP
  • Idemitsu - Japan
  • Sojitz Corporation - Japan
  • MEC Coal - Indonesia
  • Enel Italy
  • TeaM Sual Corporation - Philippines
  • OPG Power Generation Pvt Ltd - India
  • ETA - Dubai
  • Bulk Trading Sa - Switzerland
  • Kumho Petrochemical, South Korea
  • BRS Brokers - Singapore
  • Kohat Cement Company Ltd. - Pakistan
  • Coal Orbis AG
  • Larsen & Toubro Limited - India
  • Mintek Dendrill Indonesia
  • Eastern Energy - Thailand
  • Minerals Council of Australia
  • Bukit Makmur.PT - Indonesia
  • Georgia Ports Authority, United States
  • Credit Suisse - India
  • SUEK AG - Indonesia
  • Jorong Barutama Greston.PT - Indonesia
  • Aboitiz Power Corporation - Philippines
  • Coalindo Energy - Indonesia
  • TNPL - India
  • Ministry of Transport, Egypt
  • Maybank - Singapore
  • TRAFIGURA, South Korea
  • Ind-Barath Power Infra Limited - India
  • Deutsche Bank - India
  • Mechel - Russia
  • Siam City Cement PLC, Thailand
  • Binh Thuan Hamico - Vietnam
  • Arutmin Indonesia
  • Kepco SPC Power Corporation, Philippines
  • Shenhua Group - China
  • Qatrana Cement - Jordan
  • PNOC Exploration Corporation - Philippines
  • Tata Chemicals Ltd - India
  • GB Group - China
  • Romanian Commodities Exchange
  • Fearnleys - India
  • Sucofindo - Indonesia
  • Surastha Cement
  • Mitsui
  • APGENCO India
  • Chamber of Mines of South Africa
  • Asia Pacific Energy Resources Ventures Inc, Philippines
  • Inspectorate - India
  • Ministry of Mines - Canada
  • SRK Consulting
  • Africa Commodities Group - South Africa
  • Toyota Tsusho Corporation, Japan
  • Salva Resources Pvt Ltd - India
  • Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited - India
  • SMG Consultants - Indonesia
  • Barclays Capital - USA
  • Goldman Sachs - Singapore
  • Ceylon Electricity Board - Sri Lanka
  • Tanito Harum - Indonesia
  • Barasentosa Lestari - Indonesia
  • J M Baxi & Co - India
  • Bukit Baiduri Energy - Indonesia
  • Asmin Koalindo Tuhup - Indonesia
  • Xindia Steels Limited - India
  • Semirara Mining Corp, Philippines
  • Interocean Group of Companies - India
  • Pipit Mutiara Jaya. PT, Indonesia
  • The India Cements Ltd
  • Indian School of Mines
  • Directorate Of Revenue Intelligence - India
  • UBS Singapore
  • Ambuja Cements Ltd - India
  • Cebu Energy, Philippines
  • Cement Manufacturers Association - India
  • GNFC Limited - India
  • Globalindo Alam Lestari - Indonesia
  • GHCL Limited - India
  • Edison Trading Spa - Italy
  • Total Coal South Africa
  • Miang Besar Coal Terminal - Indonesia
  • Indo Tambangraya Megah - Indonesia
  • Russian Coal LLC
  • Essar Steel Hazira Ltd - India
  • Asian Development Bank
  • Vizag Seaport Private Limited - India
  • Agrawal Coal Company - India
  • Kaltim Prima Coal - Indonesia
  • CESC Limited - India
  • Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission - India
  • VISA Power Limited - India
  • Siam City Cement - Thailand
  • SGS (Thailand) Limited
  • Power Finance Corporation Ltd., India
  • SASOL - South Africa
  • Lanco Infratech Ltd - India
  • Truba Alam Manunggal Engineering.Tbk - Indonesia
  • Maruti Cements - India
  • bp singapore
  • Vedanta Resources Plc - India
  • Holcim Trading Pte Ltd - Singapore
  • Moodys - Singapore
  • Sical Logistics Limited - India
  • Independent Power Producers Association of India
  • Grasim Industreis Ltd - India
  • Gujarat Sidhee Cement - India
  • Karaikal Port Pvt Ltd - India
  • MS Steel International - UAE
  • Infraline Energy - India
  • Economic Council, Georgia
  • Jaiprakash Power Ventures ltd
  • UOB Asia (HK) Ltd
  • Wood Mackenzie - Singapore
  • The Treasury - Australian Government
  • Metalloyd Limited - United Kingdom
  • Thiess Contractors Indonesia
  • U S Energy Resources
  • Noble Europe Ltd - UK
  • Ernst & Young Pvt. Ltd.
  • Asia Cement - Taiwan
  • Indonesian Coal Mining Association
  • Arch Coal - USA
  • Heidelberg Cement - Germany
  • EMO - The Netherlands
  • KPCL - India
  • Coeclerici Indonesia
  • McKinsey & Co - India
  • PowerSource Philippines DevCo
  • PetroVietnam
  • Madhucon Powers Ltd - India
  • Bhushan Steel Limited - India
  • Freeport Indonesia
  • Formosa Plastics Group - Taiwan
  • GVK Power & Infra Limited - India
  • Deloitte Consulting - India
  • PLN - Indonesia
  • Planning Commission, India
  • Eastern Coal Council - USA
  • Banpu Public Company Limited - Thailand
  • Bhatia International Limited - India
  • Merrill Lynch Bank
  • Indonesia Power. PT
  • Gujarat Mineral Development Corp Ltd - India
  • Indian Oil Corporation Limited
  • GN Power Mariveles Coal Plant, Philippines
  • Bangkok Bank PCL
  • Coal and Oil Company - UAE
  • Humpuss - Indonesia
  • Ministry of Finance - Indonesia
  • Mercuria Energy - Indonesia
  • TNB Fuel Sdn Bhd - Malaysia
  • ANZ Bank - Australia
  • Indogreen Group - Indonesia
  • Billiton Holdings Pty Ltd - Australia
  • Timah Investasi Mineral - Indoneisa
  • KOWEPO - South Korea
  • Jindal Steel & Power Ltd - India
  • Central Electricity Authority - India
  • ICICI Bank Limited - India
  • International Coal Ventures Pvt Ltd - India
  • AsiaOL BioFuels Corp., Philippines
  • TANGEDCO India
  • Global Business Power Corporation, Philippines
  • EIA - United States
  • Tamil Nadu electricity Board
  • Vitol - Bahrain
  • Merrill Lynch Commodities Europe
  • Bhoruka Overseas - Indonesia
  • Thriveni
  • Marubeni Corporation - India
  • Anglo American - United Kingdom
  • Jatenergy - Australia
  • Directorate General of MIneral and Coal - Indonesia
  • European Bulk Services B.V. - Netherlands
  • Orica Australia Pty. Ltd.
  • IBC Asia (S) Pte Ltd
  • IOL Indonesia
  • Pendopo Energi Batubara - Indonesia
  • Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission - India
  • Thomson Reuters GRC
  • RBS Sempra - UK
  • NTPC Limited - India
  • Kobe Steel Ltd - Japan
  • Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand
  • Coastal Gujarat Power Limited - India
  • Intertek Mineral Services - Indonesia
  • Savvy Resources Ltd - HongKong
  • Malco - India
  • Japan Coal Energy Center
  • Maheswari Brothers Coal Limited - India
  • Xstrata Coal
  • Commonwealth Bank - Australia
  • Aditya Birla Group - India
  • LBH Netherlands Bv - Netherlands
  • Argus Media - Singapore
  • San Jose City I Power Corp, Philippines
  • White Energy Company Limited
  • Dr Ramakrishna Prasad Power Pvt Ltd - India
  • Medco Energi Mining Internasional
  • Lafarge - France
  • CCIC - Indonesia
  • Bangladesh Power Developement Board
  • Meenaskhi Energy Private Limited - India
  • Port Waratah Coal Services - Australia
  • Renaissance Capital - South Africa
  • Trasteel International SA, Italy
  • Antam Resourcindo - Indonesia
  • Cardiff University - UK
  • Coaltrans Conferences
  • Adaro Indonesia
  • PTC India Limited - India
  • IEA Clean Coal Centre - UK
  • HSBC - Hong Kong
  • Gupta Coal India Ltd
  • India Bulls Power Limited - India
  • Bank of China, Malaysia
  • Peabody Energy - USA
  • Oldendorff Carriers - Singapore
  • Britmindo - Indonesia
  • Riau Bara Harum - Indonesia
  • Kobexindo Tractors - Indoneisa
  • JPower - Japan
  • Vale Mozambique
  • Malabar Cements Ltd - India
  • Chettinad Cement Corporation Ltd - India
  • Cosco
  • Geoservices-GeoAssay Lab
  • Mjunction Services Limited - India
  • Cargill India Pvt Ltd
  • Bahari Cakrawala Sebuku - Indonesia
  • Thermax Limited - India
  • Platts
  • Iligan Light & Power Inc, Philippines
  • DBS Bank - Singapore
  • Singapore Mercantile Exchange
  • Altura Mining Limited, Indonesia
  • Mitra SK Pvt Ltd - India
  • ING Bank NV - Singapore
  • SN Aboitiz Power Inc, Philippines
  • Panama Canal Authority
  • GMR Energy Limited - India
  • Mitsubishi Corporation
  • Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd, - India
  • World Coal - UK
  • PetroVietnam Power Coal Import and Supply Company
  • KEPCO - South Korea
  • Rio Tinto Coal - Australia
  • BNP Paribas - Singapore
  • Cigading International Bulk Terminal - Indonesia
  • Inco-Indonesia
  • Indika Energy - Indonesia
  • South Luzon Thermal Energy Corporation
  • Dong Bac Coal Mineral Investment Coporation - Vietnam
  • IMC Shipping - Singapore
  • KPMG - USA