COALspot.com keeps you connected across the coal world
  • JUNE 2020 INDONESIAN COAL PRICE REFERENCE FOR EXPORTS AND DOMESTIC BUYERS INCLUDING POWER PRODUCERS FIXED AT US$ 52.98 A TON

Submit Your Articles
We welcome article submissions from experts in the areas of coal, mining, shipping, etc.

To Submit your article please click here.

International Energy Events


WTI Crude Oil

BRENT Crude Oil

Search News
Latest CoalNews Headlines
Sunday, 05 January 20
BUNKER QUALITY CLAIMS IN 2020 - ISSUES TO CONSIDER - CLYDE&CO
Clyde&CoKNOWLEDGE TO ELEVATE
 
In recent years the shipping industry has faced a significant number of bunker quality claims, most notably arising out of the so-called "Houston problem", where there were numerous complaints that contaminated fuel had caused engine problems, including sludge blocking fuel filters and the sticking and seizure of fuel injection components. In the most serious cases, there were reports of vessel blackouts and groundings. The global impact of shipping problems was also evident; whilst complaints regarding the "Houston problem" were originally concentrated around the US Gulf region, complaints regarding off-specification fuel quickly spread across the globe, including to Panama and Singapore. 
 
With the IMO 2020 sulphur cap now in force as of 1 January 2020, the shipping industry faces a new set of potential issues regarding bunker quality. Given that a significant number of vessels have not been fitted with exhaust gas cleaning systems or “scrubbers” (enabling the vessels to consume high sulphur fuels in compliance with the new limits in MARPOL Annex VI), there is increased demand for low sulphur fuel, and prices have risen accordingly.
 
However, concerns have been raised about the quality of some blends of low sulphur fuels, and in particular, the potential impact on vessels which may not have implemented comprehensive fuel management procedures to store and consume low sulphur fuel.
 
Owing to different fuel blends, the compositions and properties of low sulphur fuel on the market can vary widely. Experts have raised concerns about the level of catalytic fines (catfines) which can often be at relatively high levels in non-distillate low sulphur fuels, owing to the refining processes and blends with cutter stock to reduce sulphur content. If catfines levels are high and/or vessels do not have adequate purifiers in operation, then these small, hard particles can embed in soft metal surfaces in fuel pumps, injectors and cylinder lines in engines, and act as an abrasive, dramatically increasing the rate of wear of engine components, with the risk of wear beyond maximum limits occurring in weeks.  
 
Concerns have also been raised about the stability levels of blended low sulphur fuel, and the risk that asphaltene content may precipitate out of solution, causing the formation of sludge which can block engine filters and pipes, leading to the potential loss of power and propulsion.
 
There are also numerous potential issues which could arise with the enforcement of the lower sulphur limits in MARPOL Annex VI, which could result in legal claims. Potential claims could arise where the MARPOL bunker sample tests on specification, but other samples when tested, generate results which narrowly exceed the prescribed 0.50% m/m limit. From 1 March 2020, vessels without scrubbers will not be permitted to carry fuel over the 0.50% m/m limit, leading to potential enforcement action against such vessels and disputes between Owners and Charterers regarding any losses arising out of such enforcement action. Disputes may also arise where Port State Control obtain their own bunker samples from bunker tanks but these test off-specification due to high sulphur content. In such cases, a vessel may be detained and/or forced to debunker by the authorities.
 
Where there are complaints about bunker quality, a number of potential legal claims could arise between different parties concerned with the bunker supply. Disputes between Owners and Time Charterers concerning bunker quality regularly occur, and we expect that the impact of IMO 2020 will lead to an overall increase in the number of these disputes. There may also be an increase in the number of claims by bunker purchasers against bunker traders and suppliers, as well as claims by vessel Owners under H&M policies, if there is an increase in the number of reports of engine damage.
 
This article (the first in a two-part series) focuses on some the key legal issues that can arise under charterparties in relation to bunker quality claims.
 
Charterparty claims between Owners and Time Charterers concerning bunker quality
 
A. Charterers' obligations in respect of bunker quality
 
It is widely accepted that, in the absence of any special conditions, Time Charterers will be under an "absolute" obligation to provide bunkers that are of reasonable general quality and suitable for the type of engines on the vessel. In practice, most charterparties also include express requirements stipulating the grade and type of fuel to be supplied, referable to one of the recent ISO 8217 standards. Given the "absolute" obligation, Charterers will not be able to avoid liability for the supply of bad quality fuel to a vessel by contending they have used reputable suppliers; Charterers are under an obligation to ensure that all fuel bunkered is suitable for consumption by a reasonably well maintained vessel.
 
In any event, in the absence of express provisions, a vessel Owner could argue that Charterers are under an implied obligation to source bunkers which are "fit for the purpose intended". This is likely to have a degree of overlap with the requirement under clause 5.3 of ISO 8217 that fuel should be "free of any material that renders a fuel unacceptable for use in marine applications".
 
However, Charterers will not be obliged to meet any unusual requirements of the vessel's engines, unless those requirements have been brought to Charterers’ attention (generally through specifying in the charterparty any requirements that need to be met in terms of fuel).
 
One of the key issues that may arise concern with bunker fuel in 2020 is whether any engine damage suffered is primarily caused by poor quality fuel supplied by Charterers in breach of charterparty requirements, or primarily caused by factors that are Owners' responsibility; such as maintenance of the engines, or fuel management practices.
 
B. Bunker quality claims by Owners against Charterers
 
Claims for engine damage
 
In order to successfully advance a claim against Charterers for engine damage, Owners will need to overcome two key hurdles. Firstly, Owners will need to prove that Charterers supplied bunkers to the vessel which were in breach of their obligations in respect of bunker quality. Secondly, Owners will need to prove that the fuel supplied by Charterers caused the engine damage alleged.
 
Owners often experience difficulties discharging the burden of proof in relation to this second hurdle. Following notification of engine damage, Charterers may allege that the fuel supplied did not cause the engine problems alleged, or alternatively, Owners' management of the vessel (at least in part) contributed to the engine damage. Charterers, may for example, assert that bunkers supplied under a previous charterparty may have caused the damage alleged, Owners had not maintained the engine properly, incompatible fuels had been mixed (causing the bunkers to become unstable) or that Owners otherwise had improper fuel management procedures which caused, or contributed to, the engine damage.
 
When such disputes arise, the outcome will largely depend on the quality of the evidence, and in particular, whether a party is able to rely on evidence which supports their account of the damage. For this reason, it is important that if engine damage is alleged to have been the result of bad quality bunkers, that the evidence is gathered at an early stage – with surveyors inspecting the engine, samples of the fuel being taken, any damaged components being preserved for analysis, and all relevant documentary records (including but not limited to log books, alarm records, oil record books and maintenance records) concerning the vessel being retained. This evidence will need to be considered, together with the results of sample analysis.
 
If, following tests on samples, Owners are unable to identify a contaminant in the fuel supplied by Charterers, it will likely be difficult for Owners to discharge the burden of (i) showing that the fuel supplied was off-specification and (ii) that the fuel was the cause of the alleged engine damage.
 
A further defence that Charterers may seek to rely on in cases where it is determined that off-specification bunkers were supplied to a vessel is to assert that Owners are under a duty to mitigate their losses, and not to exacerbate any damage by continuing to burn bunkers. If the vessel continues to consume bunkers which Owners suspect to be contaminated, notwithstanding concerns about engine damage, then Charterers may be able to argue that any further damage suffered as a result of fuel consumption after initial concerns of damage became apparent are Owners' responsibility.
 
Claims where the fuel has not yet been consumed
 
If Owners have received test results indicating that the fuel supplied by Charterers is off-specification, and there are risks to the vessel in consuming such fuel, then Owners will be placed in a difficult position. As mentioned above, the burden will be on Owners to mitigate their losses. Whilst Owners can demand Charterers debunker off-specification fuel supplied to the vessel, and supply replacement bunkers, there is no guarantee that Charterers will comply with such a demand, particularly if the bunker supplier refuses to re-supply the vessel. Given the burden on Owners to mitigate their losses, it would also be worthwhile Owners establishing whether any options are available that would enable the fuel to be consumed safely (such as blending or incorporating additives to fuel). However, depending on the circumstances, if it is not possible for the vessel to safely consume the fuel, and Charterers have refused to debunker, it may prudent for Owners to carry out debunkering at first instance, and subsequently advance a claim against Charterers for any losses they incur.
 
Sampling and testing issues
 
The samples taken at the time of the bunker supply are of critical importance, given that testing of these samples can indicate whether the fuel supplied is off-specification or not (although some contaminants are only identifiable with advanced GC/MS testing). Moreover, the samples taken are key to the outcome of any subsequent bunker quality dispute. It is therefore important that Owners ensure that the samples taken are representative of the product supplied, with it being desirable for Owners to ensure that samples are taken at the vessel’s manifold by drip sample, rather than on the bunker barge. 
 
Results of different samples tested can vary, and this can give rise to the scope for dispute. In particular, in addition to the natural variation in test results, regrettably, the shipping industry has faced problems where unscrupulous bunker suppliers knowingly supply off-specification fuel to vessels, and attempt to mask this through providing false samples of the fuel supplied. The best way for Owners and operators to avoid the risk of this is to insist on fully witnessed sampling at the vessel manifold. This will greatly assist Owners in identifying and dealing with any bunker quality issues that could arise, and protect their position against Time Charterers (if Charterers supplied the fuel) or against bunker traders or suppliers (if Owners contracted with the bunker traders or suppliers directly).
 
IMO 2020 raises further issues regarding the fuel carried on vessels. With the 1 January 2020 implementation deadline having passed, the consumption of high sulphur fuel without a scrubber is prohibited. On 1 March 2020, vessels without scrubbers will no longer be able to carry non-compliant fuel. If a vessel does not have a scrubber, Owners will wish to ensure that any fuel supplied does not risk the vessel facing potential enforcement action, and that any residual high sulphur fuel in the vessel’s tanks does not push any fuel supplied above the 0.50% m/m limit.
 
Conclusions - considering possible future impacts
 
Whilst the key deadline of 1 January 2020 has passed, the full ramifications of the IMO 2020 sulphur cap have yet to be fully felt. In the coming weeks and months, the enforcement steps taken by States against non-compliant vessels will be witnessed. In addition, the shipping industry will be able to see whether the concerns regarding an increase in the consumption of low sulphur fuel will lead to an increase in reports of engine problems.
 
The key steps that vessel Owners and operators can take to protect their position regarding the supply of bunkers are to ensure that full and proper sampling takes place at the time of supply, and if any issues are later found to arise, to gather all evidence regarding the supply so as to assist in defending any enforcement action from States and to preserve any rights of recourse that may exist against the Time Charterers or bunker suppliers.
Written by Paul Collier


Part 2 of this series will consider the legal issues arising out of bunker supply contracts. 

 
Authors
Ik Wei Chong, Partner / Managing Director, Asia
Leon Alexander, Partner
Paul Collier, Senior Associate
 
About Clyde & Co
Clyde & Co is a dynamic, rapidly expanding global law firm focused on providing a complete legal service to clients in our core sectors. Clyde & Co advises businesses that are at the heart of worldwide commerce and trade. Clyde & Co combinations of sector expertise, commercial attitude and in-depth regional understanding provides a unique perspective.


If you believe an article violates your rights or the rights of others, please contact us.

Recent News

Tuesday, 07 July 20
WHAT DOES THE PATHWAY TO A NET-ZERO ECONOMY LOOK LIKE FOR MINERS? - WOOD MACKENZIE
Wind, solar, electric vehicles, stationary storage and transmission are all central to achieving the Paris Agreement decarbonisation goals. &nb ...


Monday, 06 July 20
INDONESIAN COAL PRICE REFERENCE IN FREE FALL
COALspot.com: The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Indonesia has revised down again the benchmark price of Indonesian th ...


Monday, 06 July 20
SUPRAMAX: A 58,000-DWT FIXING DELIVERY VIETNAM TRIP VIA INDONESIA RE-DELIVERY WEST INDIA IN THE LOW $4,000S
Capesize The Capesize market continues to go from strength to strength, as rates reach highs not seen since September last year. The rally is p ...


Thursday, 02 July 20
PRIVATE COAL MINING MAY SEE WEAK INVESTOR SENTIMENT: ICRA - LIVEMINT
The prospects of commercial coal mining in India may be dimmer than initially expected because of the expected shift in India’s energy mix fr ...


Wednesday, 01 July 20
THERMAL COAL OPTIONS TRADING LAUNCHED IN CHINA'S ZHENGZHOU - XINHUA
Thermal coal options started trading on the Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (ZCE) in central China’s Henan Province Tuesday.   It i ...


   1 2 3 4 5   
Showing 6 to 10 news of total 5994
News by Category
Popular News
 
Total Members : 26,978
Member
Panelist
User ID
Password
Remember Me
By logging on you accept our TERMS OF USE.
Free
Register
Forgot Password
 
Our Members Are From ...

  • Bukit Baiduri Energy - Indonesia
  • Asmin Koalindo Tuhup - Indonesia
  • Oldendorff Carriers - Singapore
  • Savvy Resources Ltd - HongKong
  • Asian Development Bank
  • Singapore Mercantile Exchange
  • Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ Ltd
  • Coal India Limited
  • Freeport Indonesia
  • Ince & co LLP
  • Borneo Indobara - Indonesia
  • Binh Thuan Hamico - Vietnam
  • Jatenergy - Australia
  • Jorong Barutama Greston.PT - Indonesia
  • Bhushan Steel Limited - India
  • Kobe Steel Ltd - Japan
  • Cebu Energy, Philippines
  • Sree Jayajothi Cements Limited - India
  • Dong Bac Coal Mineral Investment Coporation - Vietnam
  • Maersk Broker
  • Indorama - Singapore
  • London Commodity Brokers - England
  • Bank of America
  • Platou - Singapore
  • Semirara Mining Corp, Philippines
  • Coaltrans Conferences
  • Ministry of Mines - Canada
  • PLN - Indonesia
  • Dalmia Cement Bharat India
  • SMC Global Power, Philippines
  • Ministry of Finance - Indonesia
  • Samsung - South Korea
  • Mintek Dendrill Indonesia
  • Maheswari Brothers Coal Limited - India
  • Karaikal Port Pvt Ltd - India
  • Bukit Asam (Persero) Tbk - Indonesia
  • CESC Limited - India
  • Energy Link Ltd, New Zealand
  • Trasteel International SA, Italy
  • Directorate General of MIneral and Coal - Indonesia
  • Pinang Coal Indonesia
  • U S Energy Resources
  • TNPL - India
  • Mitsubishi Corporation
  • Reliance Power - India
  • Chettinad Cement Corporation Ltd - India
  • Arutmin Indonesia
  • Cardiff University - UK
  • Ministry of Transport, Egypt
  • IOL Indonesia
  • Sindya Power Generating Company Private Ltd
  • Indo Tambangraya Megah - Indonesia
  • Barclays Capital - USA
  • Standard Chartered Bank - UAE
  • DBS Bank - Singapore
  • Directorate Of Revenue Intelligence - India
  • KEPCO - South Korea
  • IEA Clean Coal Centre - UK
  • ING Bank NV - Singapore
  • TeaM Sual Corporation - Philippines
  • Filglen & Citicon Mining (HK) Ltd - Hong Kong
  • Lafarge - France
  • Berau Coal - Indonesia
  • Infraline Energy - India
  • Credit Suisse - India
  • Vale Mozambique
  • Offshore Bulk Terminal Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • Manunggal Multi Energi - Indonesia
  • KPMG - USA
  • Goldman Sachs - Singapore
  • Planning Commission, India
  • Petrochimia International Co. Ltd.- Taiwan
  • World Bank
  • ETA - Dubai
  • Therma Luzon, Inc, Philippines
  • Riau Bara Harum - Indonesia
  • KPCL - India
  • Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission - India
  • Mercator Lines Limited - India
  • SUEK AG - Indonesia
  • Kaltim Prima Coal - Indonesia
  • Grasim Industreis Ltd - India
  • Georgia Ports Authority, United States
  • World Coal - UK
  • Banpu Public Company Limited - Thailand
  • GMR Energy Limited - India
  • The India Cements Ltd
  • bp singapore
  • Coastal Gujarat Power Limited - India
  • OPG Power Generation Pvt Ltd - India
  • Asia Cement - Taiwan
  • Bhatia International Limited - India
  • Madhucon Powers Ltd - India
  • Coeclerici Indonesia
  • Rudhra Energy - India
  • Vizag Seaport Private Limited - India
  • JPower - Japan
  • Thiess Contractors Indonesia
  • Makarim & Taira - Indonesia
  • Indian Oil Corporation Limited
  • CoalTek, United States
  • PNOC Exploration Corporation - Philippines
  • Petron Corporation, Philippines
  • Dr Ramakrishna Prasad Power Pvt Ltd - India
  • UBS Singapore
  • Runge Indonesia
  • AsiaOL BioFuels Corp., Philippines
  • Ambuja Cements Ltd - India
  • Pipit Mutiara Jaya. PT, Indonesia
  • Krishnapatnam Port Company Ltd. - India
  • Malabar Cements Ltd - India
  • Gujarat Sidhee Cement - India
  • Marubeni Corporation - India
  • Uttam Galva Steels Limited - India
  • RBS Sempra - UK
  • Anglo American - United Kingdom
  • Cosco
  • Permata Bank - Indonesia
  • Cigading International Bulk Terminal - Indonesia
  • Australian Coal Association
  • Argus Media - Singapore
  • GN Power Mariveles Coal Plant, Philippines
  • Edison Trading Spa - Italy
  • Sical Logistics Limited - India
  • Rio Tinto Coal - Australia
  • Sojitz Corporation - Japan
  • EIA - United States
  • Leighton Contractors Pty Ltd - Australia
  • European Bulk Services B.V. - Netherlands
  • Maybank - Singapore
  • Indogreen Group - Indonesia
  • Core Mineral Indonesia
  • JPMorgan - India
  • Semirara Mining and Power Corporation, Philippines
  • Cargill India Pvt Ltd
  • BNP Paribas - Singapore
  • MEC Coal - Indonesia
  • Kepco SPC Power Corporation, Philippines
  • IMC Shipping - Singapore
  • Maruti Cements - India
  • Baramulti Group, Indonesia
  • Aditya Birla Group - India
  • Qatrana Cement - Jordan
  • Surastha Cement
  • Mitra SK Pvt Ltd - India
  • Humpuss - Indonesia
  • UOB Asia (HK) Ltd
  • Metalloyd Limited - United Kingdom
  • CCIC - Indonesia
  • Sucofindo - Indonesia
  • Meenaskhi Energy Private Limited - India
  • HSBC - Hong Kong
  • Cement Manufacturers Association - India
  • GB Group - China
  • TGV SRAAC LIMITED, India
  • Price Waterhouse Coopers - Russia
  • Siam City Cement - Thailand
  • India Bulls Power Limited - India
  • Global Business Power Corporation, Philippines
  • Orica Australia Pty. Ltd.
  • WorleyParsons
  • SASOL - South Africa
  • Bangkok Bank PCL
  • Ind-Barath Power Infra Limited - India
  • Carbofer General Trading SA - India
  • Port Waratah Coal Services - Australia
  • Medco Energi Mining Internasional
  • Posco Energy - South Korea
  • Videocon Industries ltd - India
  • Altura Mining Limited, Indonesia
  • Kobexindo Tractors - Indoneisa
  • Orica Mining Services - Indonesia
  • Thriveni
  • CNBM International Corporation - China
  • SRK Consulting
  • Panama Canal Authority
  • Thermax Limited - India
  • Bank of China, Malaysia
  • McConnell Dowell - Australia
  • Deutsche Bank - India
  • SN Aboitiz Power Inc, Philippines
  • Jaiprakash Power Ventures ltd
  • Moodys - Singapore
  • Asia Pacific Energy Resources Ventures Inc, Philippines
  • Russian Coal LLC
  • Britmindo - Indonesia
  • Ernst & Young Pvt. Ltd.
  • Latin American Coal - Colombia
  • Vitol - Bahrain
  • Miang Besar Coal Terminal - Indonesia
  • CIMB Investment Bank - Malaysia
  • San Jose City I Power Corp, Philippines
  • Simpson Spence & Young - Indonesia
  • Kartika Selabumi Mining - Indonesia
  • TNB Fuel Sdn Bhd - Malaysia
  • OCBC - Singapore
  • Bahari Cakrawala Sebuku - Indonesia
  • Attock Cement Pakistan Limited
  • EMO - The Netherlands
  • Parliament of New Zealand
  • Peabody Energy - USA
  • Kapuas Tunggal Persada - Indonesia
  • The State Trading Corporation of India Ltd
  • Ceylon Electricity Board - Sri Lanka
  • McKinsey & Co - India
  • MS Steel International - UAE
  • Bhoruka Overseas - Indonesia
  • Mitsui
  • South Luzon Thermal Energy Corporation
  • GHCL Limited - India
  • Globalindo Alam Lestari - Indonesia
  • Economic Council, Georgia
  • Heidelberg Cement - Germany
  • Cemex - Philippines
  • Deloitte Consulting - India
  • Bukit Makmur.PT - Indonesia
  • GNFC Limited - India
  • Toyota Tsusho Corporation, Japan
  • Essar Steel Hazira Ltd - India
  • SMG Consultants - Indonesia
  • Energy Development Corp, Philippines
  • Minerals Council of Australia
  • Gujarat Mineral Development Corp Ltd - India
  • Kideco Jaya Agung - Indonesia
  • Idemitsu - Japan
  • Meralco Power Generation, Philippines
  • SGS (Thailand) Limited
  • Larsen & Toubro Limited - India
  • Star Paper Mills Limited - India
  • ACC Limited - India
  • Clarksons - UK
  • Geoservices-GeoAssay Lab
  • Tamil Nadu electricity Board
  • Bayan Resources Tbk. - Indonesia
  • LBH Netherlands Bv - Netherlands
  • Mjunction Services Limited - India
  • Agrawal Coal Company - India
  • Commonwealth Bank - Australia
  • Straits Asia Resources Limited - Singapore
  • Shree Cement - India
  • Gresik Semen - Indonesia
  • Independent Power Producers Association of India
  • IHS Mccloskey Coal Group - USA
  • PetroVietnam
  • Platts
  • J M Baxi & Co - India
  • Inco-Indonesia
  • Glencore India Pvt. Ltd
  • Sakthi Sugars Limited - India
  • Intertek Mineral Services - Indonesia
  • Central Electricity Authority - India
  • TANGEDCO India
  • Barasentosa Lestari - Indonesia
  • Bulk Trading Sa - Switzerland
  • Parry Sugars Refinery, India
  • Formosa Plastics Group - Taiwan
  • Siam City Cement PLC, Thailand
  • Coal and Oil Company - UAE
  • Noble Europe Ltd - UK
  • Adaro Indonesia
  • TRAFIGURA, South Korea
  • Merrill Lynch Bank
  • Adani Power Ltd - India
  • Tata Chemicals Ltd - India
  • Power Finance Corporation Ltd., India
  • Mercuria Energy - Indonesia
  • Billiton Holdings Pty Ltd - Australia
  • Wood Mackenzie - Singapore
  • Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited - India
  • Fearnleys - India
  • Jindal Steel & Power Ltd - India
  • International Coal Ventures Pvt Ltd - India
  • VISA Power Limited - India
  • Karbindo Abesyapradhi - Indoneisa
  • Bangladesh Power Developement Board
  • Xstrata Coal
  • GVK Power & Infra Limited - India
  • Shenhua Group - China
  • Tata Power - India
  • Central Java Power - Indonesia
  • Chamber of Mines of South Africa
  • ANZ Bank - Australia
  • Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand
  • Thomson Reuters GRC
  • Inspectorate - India
  • Antam Resourcindo - Indonesia
  • Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd, - India
  • Thai Mozambique Logistica
  • Eastern Energy - Thailand
  • Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission - India
  • Indonesia Power. PT
  • ICICI Bank Limited - India
  • Sarangani Energy Corporation, Philippines
  • Salva Resources Pvt Ltd - India
  • The University of Queensland
  • IBC Asia (S) Pte Ltd
  • Kumho Petrochemical, South Korea
  • BRS Brokers - Singapore
  • Lanco Infratech Ltd - India
  • Sinarmas Energy and Mining - Indonesia
  • Australian Commodity Traders Exchange
  • Iligan Light & Power Inc, Philippines
  • Malco - India
  • White Energy Company Limited
  • Indonesian Coal Mining Association
  • Total Coal South Africa
  • NALCO India
  • PetroVietnam Power Coal Import and Supply Company
  • Coalindo Energy - Indonesia
  • Arch Coal - USA
  • Eastern Coal Council - USA
  • The Treasury - Australian Government
  • New Zealand Coal & Carbon
  • Indika Energy - Indonesia
  • GAC Shipping (India) Pvt Ltd
  • Kalimantan Lumbung Energi - Indonesia
  • ASAPP Information Group - India
  • Tanito Harum - Indonesia
  • Timah Investasi Mineral - Indoneisa
  • Kohat Cement Company Ltd. - Pakistan
  • Mechel - Russia
  • Wilmar Investment Holdings
  • globalCOAL - UK
  • PTC India Limited - India
  • Aboitiz Power Corporation - Philippines
  • Indian School of Mines
  • APGENCO India
  • Renaissance Capital - South Africa
  • Thailand Anthracite
  • Vedanta Resources Plc - India
  • PowerSource Philippines DevCo
  • Xindia Steels Limited - India
  • Global Green Power PLC Corporation, Philippines
  • NTPC Limited - India
  • Samtan Co., Ltd - South Korea
  • Enel Italy
  • Petrosea - Indonesia
  • Romanian Commodities Exchange
  • Merrill Lynch Commodities Europe
  • Alfred C Toepfer International GmbH - Germany
  • Holcim Trading Pte Ltd - Singapore
  • Japan Coal Energy Center
  • Vijayanagar Sugar Pvt Ltd - India
  • Bharathi Cement Corporation - India
  • Interocean Group of Companies - India
  • Gupta Coal India Ltd
  • Pendopo Energi Batubara - Indonesia
  • PLN Batubara - Indonesia
  • Global Coal Blending Company Limited - Australia
  • Coal Orbis AG
  • KOWEPO - South Korea
  • Africa Commodities Group - South Africa
  • Truba Alam Manunggal Engineering.Tbk - Indonesia