COALspot.com keeps you connected across the coal world
  • JULY 2019 INDONESIAN COAL PRICE REFERENCE FOR EXPORTS AND DOMESTIC BUYERS EXCEPT POWER PRODUCERS FIXED AT US$ 71.92 A TON
  • SHARE YOUR CORPORATE COAL & SHIPPING NEWS WITH US - NEWS@COALSPOT.COM
  • WE WELCOME ARTICLE SUBMISSIONS FROM EXPERTS IN THE AREAS OF COAL, MINING, SHIPPING, ETC.

Submit Your Articles
We welcome article submissions from experts in the areas of coal, mining, shipping, etc.

To Submit your article please click here.

International Energy Events


WTI Crude Oil

BRENT Crude Oil

Search News
Latest CoalNews Headlines
Monday, 10 June 19
CONSECUTIVE OWNERS OF CARGO: WHO HOLDS TITLE AND THE RIGHT TO SUE? - COLIN BIGGERS & PAISLEY
Colin Biggers & PaisleyKNOWLEDGE TO ELEVATE

In Tritton Resources Pty Ltd v Ever Rock Navigation S.A. [2019] FCA 276, the Federal Court considered the application of the time bar under the Amended Hague Visby Rules and the entitlements of the consecutive owners of cargo under a bill of lading to claim against the ship’s owners.
 
On 18 December 2011 the MV Ikan Jahan (ship) ran aground whilst on route from Newcastle, Australia to Tuticorin, India. The sea conditions were described as poor with rain and fog. It grounded on Manuk Island during passage through the Banda Sea, Indonesia. The ship was carrying, amongst other shipments, a cargo of copper concentrate (cargo).
 
The plaintiffs are consecutive owners of the cargo having been subject to successive contracts of sale between them. They allege that the ship’s owners breached the non-delegable duty under Article III rule 1 of the Amended Hague Visby Rules to exercise due diligence to render the ship seaworthy. The plaintiffs seek indemnity for sums paid for their contribution towards the cost of the ship’s salvage and a negative declaration and indemnity for their contribution to general average.
 
In the recent decision of Justice Derrington in Tritton Resources Pty Ltd v Ever Rock Navigation S.A., the Court considered six separate questions posed under rule 30.01 of the Federal Court Rules 2011 (Cth). These questions fall into two broad issues:
 
  1. the application of the time bar under Article III rule 6 of the Amended Hague Visby Rules
  2. the entitlements of the plaintiffs, as consecutive owners of cargo under a bill of lading (BOL), to claim against the ship’s owners
 
Grounding and salvage of the ship, sale and delivery of the cargo and parties involved
Ever Rock Navigation S.A. (Ever Rock) is the defendant and owner of the ship. Ever Rock is the carrier for the purpose of this claim because there was no bareboat charter and the signature provisions of the BOL indicated that it was issued for and on behalf of Ever Rock.
 
After the grounding, Ever Rock engaged Fukada Salvage and Marine Works Co Ltd (Fukada) to salvage the ship and cargo. The ship remained grounded for about four weeks. It proceeded to Singapore for repairs before resuming its voyage. The salvors were entitled to a payment of US$6,850,000 and the cargo interests were responsible for US$4,690,606 of that. US$2,718,675.24 was paid in respect of the copper cargo. Ever Rock declared general average following the grounding and the general average adjusters, Asai & Ichikawa of Japan, adjudged the plaintiffs liable to pay US $719,817.88.
 
At the time of the grounding, Ever Rock was subject to a time charter to PCL (Shipping) Pte Ltd of Singapore (PCL) and a voyage charter from PCL as “disponent owner” to Tritton Resources Pty Ltd (Tritton).
 
Tritton sold the cargo to Freepoint Metals & Concentrates LLC (Freepoint changed its name to Sempra Metals & Concentrates Corp and JP Morgan Metals & Concentrates LLC (referred herein as JP Morgan)). Title and risk of loss or damage was passed from Tritton to JP Morgan when the cargo passed the ship’s rails at the port of loading.
 
JP Morgan received the BOL on or about 17 November 2011, after paying the purchase price to Tritton. JP Morgan held the BOL when the grounding and salvage occurred.
 
JP Morgan sold the cargo to Sterlite Industries (India) Limited (Sterlite). JP Morgan was obliged to purchase insurance for the buyer from the passing of risk at the port of loading although Sterlite was obliged to make any insurance claim. Title was to pass to Sterlite when the first provisional payment was received (upon the ship’s arrival at discharge port upon presentation of shipping documents, which was on 14 February 2012). Risk of loss and damage was to pass when the cargo was on board the ship at the port of loading. As the grounding occurred on route, risk had passed to Sterlite but title had not.
 
JP Morgan endorsed the BOL in blank and provided it to Sterlite on or about 8 February 2012, who became the lawful holder of the BOL (after the grounding and salvage).
 
Sterlite received delivery of the cargo from Ever Rock against presentation of the original BOL. Sterlite surrendered the BOL to the time charterer, PCL, on or about 10 February 2012, who passed it to Ever Rock’s agent, Orient Marine Co Ltd.
 
Are the claims time barred?
The BOL is a contract to which the provisions of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1991 (Cth), the Amended Hague Visby Rules (in Schedule 1A of that Act) and the Sea Carriage Documents Act 1997 (NSW) apply.
 
Article III rule 6 of the Amended Hague Visby Rules imposes a time bar of one year from the delivery of the cargo, or the date when it should have been delivered. The limitation period expired on 18 December 2012.
 
Ever Rock granted a number of extensions to the cargo owners, as negotiated by the plaintiffs’ insurers and the insurers’ lawyers.
 
The Court extensively considered the negotiations between the parties and concluded that the time bar in Article III rule 6 of the Amended Hague Visby Rules did not apply to the plaintiffs because the defendant had granted an extension and the action was commenced within that extended period.
 
Who retains title and the right to sue?
The Court considered the transfer of contractual rights as a result of the various holders of the BOL. The operation of the Sea Carriage Documents Act extinguishes the rights of prior holders of the BOL upon transfer but transfers the rights under the BOL to each consecutive lawful holder. The transferee of a BOL then becomes entitled to recover for any losses sustained by previous holders of the BOL.
 
Tritton had transferred the BOL to JP Morgan before the grounding. Under the purchase contract, title and risk of loss or damage of the cargo was passed from Tritton to JP Morgan when the cargo passed the ship’s rails at the port of loading. For these reasons, Tritton was found to not have any rights against Ever Rock as a result of the grounding, either under the BOL or otherwise.
 
Sterlite became the holder of the BOL and presented it for delivery of the cargo. It is the only party with any rights under the BOL to pursue Ever Rock as ship owner, regardless of when the cause of action arose.
 
JP Morgan was the owner of the cargo and lawful holder of the BOL at the time of the grounding and during the period when the salvors were engaged and performed the salvage. JP Morgan is entitled to pursue a cause of action in tort for any loss or damage done to the cargo whilst it had title to it, including arising from the obligation to pay the portion of salvage charges applicable to the cargo. As the proposed cause of action in negligence was not shown to be without sufficient merit, the Court granted leave to JP Morgan to amend its statement of claim to include it as a cause of action.
 
It follows that Sterlite and JP Morgan are entitled to claim a loss in respect of the salvage agreement with Fukada, whereas Tritton has no entitlements to make such claim.
 
The Court’s determinations on title and the right to sue resolve key issues at an early stage, minimising the time and cost of the legal proceedings and giving the parties certainty to pursue their respective claims. The substantive issues remain open for negotiation or further litigation.
Source: Colin Biggers & Paisley Pty Ltd.


If you believe an article violates your rights or the rights of others, please contact us.

Recent News

Wednesday, 26 June 19
SHIPPING MARKET INSIGHT - INTERMODAL
As the first half of the year is almost over, it is worth looking back at the sale and purchase activity during these months, focusing on the segme ...


Tuesday, 25 June 19
THERMAL COAL FUTURES ON THE ZHENGSHOU EXCHANGE ROSE - DANIEL HYNES
Coal markets were buoyed by ongoing supply side issues.    According to Daniel Hynes, Senior Commodity Strategist of ANZ, the the ...


Monday, 24 June 19
KOMIPO INVITED BITUMINOUS COAL BIDS FOR BORYEONG & SHIN BORYEONG POWER PLANTS
South Korea state-owned utility Korea Midland Power (KOMIPO) issued a tender for 260,000 MT MT of min. 5700 NAR coal and 240,000 MT of min. 4,600 k ...


Sunday, 23 June 19
SUPRAMAX: A 56,000-DWT WAS FIXED FROM INDONESIA TO VIETNAM AT $10,000 - BALTIC BRIEFING
Capesize The story over the past week has been largely Atlantic dominated as the basin’s uniquely volatile characteristics came into play ...


Saturday, 22 June 19
OPEC'S BATTLE FOR CONTROL OF THE OIL MARKET - WOOD MACKENZIE
Oil supply is confounding expectations. We have just raised our forecasts for non-OPEC production, the latest in a series of incremental increases. ...


   1 2 3 4 5   
Showing 11 to 15 news of total 5507
News by Category
Popular News
 
Total Members : 26,333
Member
Panelist
User ID
Password
Remember Me
By logging on you accept our TERMS OF USE.
Free
Register
Forgot Password
 
Our Members Are From ...

  • Dr Ramakrishna Prasad Power Pvt Ltd - India
  • Riau Bara Harum - Indonesia
  • The University of Queensland
  • Videocon Industries ltd - India
  • Independent Power Producers Association of India
  • Coeclerici Indonesia
  • Maheswari Brothers Coal Limited - India
  • Commonwealth Bank - Australia
  • Orica Australia Pty. Ltd.
  • TeaM Sual Corporation - Philippines
  • Trasteel International SA, Italy
  • BNP Paribas - Singapore
  • Samtan Co., Ltd - South Korea
  • Core Mineral Indonesia
  • Merrill Lynch Commodities Europe
  • Surastha Cement
  • Manunggal Multi Energi - Indonesia
  • PLN Batubara - Indonesia
  • Clarksons - UK
  • Humpuss - Indonesia
  • Vale Mozambique
  • Mechel - Russia
  • TNB Fuel Sdn Bhd - Malaysia
  • Filglen & Citicon Mining (HK) Ltd - Hong Kong
  • World Coal - UK
  • Karaikal Port Pvt Ltd - India
  • World Bank
  • Port Waratah Coal Services - Australia
  • Savvy Resources Ltd - HongKong
  • Krishnapatnam Port Company Ltd. - India
  • IEA Clean Coal Centre - UK
  • Ministry of Finance - Indonesia
  • Latin American Coal - Colombia
  • Carbofer General Trading SA - India
  • Mercuria Energy - Indonesia
  • Global Coal Blending Company Limited - Australia
  • Kobexindo Tractors - Indoneisa
  • Economic Council, Georgia
  • GHCL Limited - India
  • Berau Coal - Indonesia
  • Makarim & Taira - Indonesia
  • Bhoruka Overseas - Indonesia
  • Medco Energi Mining Internasional
  • Petrosea - Indonesia
  • GNFC Limited - India
  • Gupta Coal India Ltd
  • Meenaskhi Energy Private Limited - India
  • Attock Cement Pakistan Limited
  • Asian Development Bank
  • Credit Suisse - India
  • White Energy Company Limited
  • Timah Investasi Mineral - Indoneisa
  • Bukit Asam (Persero) Tbk - Indonesia
  • OPG Power Generation Pvt Ltd - India
  • CIMB Investment Bank - Malaysia
  • Samsung - South Korea
  • IBC Asia (S) Pte Ltd
  • Holcim Trading Pte Ltd - Singapore
  • Standard Chartered Bank - UAE
  • Permata Bank - Indonesia
  • Directorate Of Revenue Intelligence - India
  • Bahari Cakrawala Sebuku - Indonesia
  • PetroVietnam
  • Dalmia Cement Bharat India
  • European Bulk Services B.V. - Netherlands
  • Orica Mining Services - Indonesia
  • Siam City Cement PLC, Thailand
  • Thai Mozambique Logistica
  • Lafarge - France
  • Aditya Birla Group - India
  • Chamber of Mines of South Africa
  • Thiess Contractors Indonesia
  • IMC Shipping - Singapore
  • Thermax Limited - India
  • Kartika Selabumi Mining - Indonesia
  • Thriveni
  • Cigading International Bulk Terminal - Indonesia
  • Indonesia Power. PT
  • McConnell Dowell - Australia
  • Adani Power Ltd - India
  • Oldendorff Carriers - Singapore
  • Anglo American - United Kingdom
  • Salva Resources Pvt Ltd - India
  • APGENCO India
  • Coal Orbis AG
  • Larsen & Toubro Limited - India
  • Inspectorate - India
  • Arutmin Indonesia
  • Geoservices-GeoAssay Lab
  • Cosco
  • Platou - Singapore
  • Bhushan Steel Limited - India
  • Indorama - Singapore
  • Maruti Cements - India
  • Total Coal South Africa
  • Ministry of Mines - Canada
  • Indonesian Coal Mining Association
  • Sical Logistics Limited - India
  • Coal India Limited
  • Wood Mackenzie - Singapore
  • Moodys - Singapore
  • Barasentosa Lestari - Indonesia
  • Offshore Bulk Terminal Pte Ltd, Singapore
  • UOB Asia (HK) Ltd
  • UBS Singapore
  • ASAPP Information Group - India
  • MS Steel International - UAE
  • Malco - India
  • Ceylon Electricity Board - Sri Lanka
  • Kalimantan Lumbung Energi - Indonesia
  • Cargill India Pvt Ltd
  • Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ Ltd
  • International Coal Ventures Pvt Ltd - India
  • Indo Tambangraya Megah - Indonesia
  • Borneo Indobara - Indonesia
  • Coastal Gujarat Power Limited - India
  • Bharathi Cement Corporation - India
  • Heidelberg Cement - Germany
  • OCBC - Singapore
  • Tanito Harum - Indonesia
  • Dong Bac Coal Mineral Investment Coporation - Vietnam
  • Directorate General of MIneral and Coal - Indonesia
  • Mitsubishi Corporation
  • Runge Indonesia
  • Central Electricity Authority - India
  • MEC Coal - Indonesia
  • Eastern Energy - Thailand
  • Banpu Public Company Limited - Thailand
  • VISA Power Limited - India
  • Glencore India Pvt. Ltd
  • Gujarat Mineral Development Corp Ltd - India
  • Jaiprakash Power Ventures ltd
  • Xstrata Coal
  • ING Bank NV - Singapore
  • CoalTek, United States
  • Asmin Koalindo Tuhup - Indonesia
  • Barclays Capital - USA
  • Wilmar Investment Holdings
  • Cemex - Philippines
  • Bayan Resources Tbk. - Indonesia
  • CCIC - Indonesia
  • Grasim Industreis Ltd - India
  • Sakthi Sugars Limited - India
  • EIA - United States
  • Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand
  • EMO - The Netherlands
  • globalCOAL - UK
  • Cement Manufacturers Association - India
  • Thomson Reuters GRC
  • Singapore Mercantile Exchange
  • Bhatia International Limited - India
  • Madhucon Powers Ltd - India
  • Bank of America
  • Inco-Indonesia
  • Interocean Group of Companies - India
  • Deloitte Consulting - India
  • ANZ Bank - Australia
  • PLN - Indonesia
  • Reliance Power - India
  • IOL Indonesia
  • Panama Canal Authority
  • Mitra SK Pvt Ltd - India
  • Bank of China, Malaysia
  • NALCO India
  • Indian School of Mines
  • Mercator Lines Limited - India
  • Neyveli Lignite Corporation Ltd, - India
  • Aboitiz Power Corporation - Philippines
  • KEPCO - South Korea
  • Australian Commodity Traders Exchange
  • Shree Cement - India
  • Pendopo Energi Batubara - Indonesia
  • Posco Energy - South Korea
  • Infraline Energy - India
  • Romanian Commodities Exchange
  • Marubeni Corporation - India
  • Ministry of Transport, Egypt
  • Malabar Cements Ltd - India
  • SGS (Thailand) Limited
  • IHS Mccloskey Coal Group - USA
  • PTC India Limited - India
  • Edison Trading Spa - Italy
  • McKinsey & Co - India
  • Antam Resourcindo - Indonesia
  • Goldman Sachs - Singapore
  • Simpson Spence & Young - Indonesia
  • Kapuas Tunggal Persada - Indonesia
  • Parliament of New Zealand
  • Planning Commission, India
  • The Treasury - Australian Government
  • RBS Sempra - UK
  • Coaltrans Conferences
  • South Luzon Thermal Energy Corporation
  • Maybank - Singapore
  • Bukit Makmur.PT - Indonesia
  • Parry Sugars Refinery, India
  • Sinarmas Energy and Mining - Indonesia
  • Freeport Indonesia
  • Vijayanagar Sugar Pvt Ltd - India
  • Coalindo Energy - Indonesia
  • Kumho Petrochemical, South Korea
  • Tamil Nadu electricity Board
  • J M Baxi & Co - India
  • Billiton Holdings Pty Ltd - Australia
  • Essar Steel Hazira Ltd - India
  • Sree Jayajothi Cements Limited - India
  • ICICI Bank Limited - India
  • BRS Brokers - Singapore
  • Kideco Jaya Agung - Indonesia
  • Sucofindo - Indonesia
  • Power Finance Corporation Ltd., India
  • Peabody Energy - USA
  • Indogreen Group - Indonesia
  • Gujarat Sidhee Cement - India
  • Gresik Semen - Indonesia
  • SUEK AG - Indonesia
  • Fearnleys - India
  • The State Trading Corporation of India Ltd
  • Ernst & Young Pvt. Ltd.
  • Ind-Barath Power Infra Limited - India
  • Renaissance Capital - South Africa
  • Chettinad Cement Corporation Ltd - India
  • Kobe Steel Ltd - Japan
  • Africa Commodities Group - South Africa
  • Mitsui
  • Idemitsu - Japan
  • Karbindo Abesyapradhi - Indoneisa
  • India Bulls Power Limited - India
  • Jatenergy - Australia
  • GMR Energy Limited - India
  • SRK Consulting
  • Sindya Power Generating Company Private Ltd
  • ETA - Dubai
  • The India Cements Ltd
  • GVK Power & Infra Limited - India
  • HSBC - Hong Kong
  • Bulk Trading Sa - Switzerland
  • Vitol - Bahrain
  • CESC Limited - India
  • JPMorgan - India
  • SASOL - South Africa
  • Truba Alam Manunggal Engineering.Tbk - Indonesia
  • KPMG - USA
  • GAC Shipping (India) Pvt Ltd
  • Price Waterhouse Coopers - Russia
  • Formosa Plastics Group - Taiwan
  • Japan Coal Energy Center
  • Eastern Coal Council - USA
  • Metalloyd Limited - United Kingdom
  • PetroVietnam Power Coal Import and Supply Company
  • Lanco Infratech Ltd - India
  • Tata Chemicals Ltd - India
  • Adaro Indonesia
  • Platts
  • Globalindo Alam Lestari - Indonesia
  • Enel Italy
  • DBS Bank - Singapore
  • Australian Coal Association
  • Agrawal Coal Company - India
  • Binh Thuan Hamico - Vietnam
  • Indian Oil Corporation Limited
  • Russian Coal LLC
  • Tata Power - India
  • Uttam Galva Steels Limited - India
  • Deutsche Bank - India
  • Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission - India
  • CNBM International Corporation - China
  • Toyota Tsusho Corporation, Japan
  • Pinang Coal Indonesia
  • Bukit Baiduri Energy - Indonesia
  • Indika Energy - Indonesia
  • Vizag Seaport Private Limited - India
  • Asia Cement - Taiwan
  • Kohat Cement Company Ltd. - Pakistan
  • Qatrana Cement - Jordan
  • ACC Limited - India
  • Britmindo - Indonesia
  • NTPC Limited - India
  • Straits Asia Resources Limited - Singapore
  • Ince & co LLP
  • Georgia Ports Authority, United States
  • Merrill Lynch Bank
  • Rudhra Energy - India
  • Mintek Dendrill Indonesia
  • U S Energy Resources
  • Xindia Steels Limited - India
  • Gujarat Electricity Regulatory Commission - India
  • Energy Link Ltd, New Zealand
  • Star Paper Mills Limited - India
  • KPCL - India
  • Mjunction Services Limited - India
  • KOWEPO - South Korea
  • Bangkok Bank PCL
  • Shenhua Group - China
  • PNOC Exploration Corporation - Philippines
  • TANGEDCO India
  • bp singapore
  • WorleyParsons
  • Vedanta Resources Plc - India
  • TNPL - India
  • Intertek Mineral Services - Indonesia
  • Cardiff University - UK
  • Kaltim Prima Coal - Indonesia
  • GB Group - China
  • Jindal Steel & Power Ltd - India
  • Petrochimia International Co. Ltd.- Taiwan
  • PowerSource Philippines DevCo
  • Miang Besar Coal Terminal - Indonesia
  • Argus Media - Singapore
  • SMG Consultants - Indonesia
  • Thailand Anthracite
  • Alfred C Toepfer International GmbH - Germany
  • LBH Netherlands Bv - Netherlands
  • Coal and Oil Company - UAE
  • Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited - India
  • Leighton Contractors Pty Ltd - Australia
  • Noble Europe Ltd - UK
  • Siam City Cement - Thailand
  • Rio Tinto Coal - Australia
  • Ambuja Cements Ltd - India
  • Jorong Barutama Greston.PT - Indonesia
  • London Commodity Brokers - England
  • JPower - Japan
  • Bangladesh Power Developement Board
  • Central Java Power - Indonesia
  • New Zealand Coal & Carbon
  • Maersk Broker
  • Arch Coal - USA
  • Minerals Council of Australia
  • Altura Mining Limited, Indonesia
  • Sojitz Corporation - Japan